Imaginaries and Crystallization Processes in Bitcoin Infrastructuring

I am happy to announce my new paper on “Imaginaries and Crystallization Processes in Bitcoin Infrastructuring,” written with Caitlin Lustig, about the challenges of designing and building (i.e., infrastructuring) Bitcoin technologies. This paper builds on concepts first developed by Neumann and Star introducing imaginaries and crystallization in infrastructuring. We extend this valuable work by describing imaginaries and crystallization processes in greater depth, as well as how stakeholders of an infrastructuring work interact with other powerful and pre-existing infrastructures.

 

 

How One Sibling Influences Another

Zenn is a social person at heart. He is easy going, respectful, and has maintained many friends at school. But my geeky behaviors, such as introducing them to Dash and Dot, Lego robots, and Kerbal Space Program, had less effect on Zenn than it had on Hugh.

But something changed this summer as Zenn brought up Minecraft, which was played by some of the older boys at his school. So I showed them the Minecraft which I had installed on our shared computer long ago, and unexpectedly, Hugh loved it more than Kerbal! At our home, we have a house rule of no screens on Sundays. So that left the boys with about 30 minutes every weekday and an hour or two on Saturday to use the devices (in between school and classes). And Hugh has been asking for Minecraft whenever opportunities present themselves! Initially, they had a hard time making anything apart from running, jumping, digging, etc. But after I had taught them about the Crafting Table, and the Creative Mode, Hugh has thrived in Minecraft!

First, he started decorating his room interior, and kept pet polar bears (he reasoned that it was better to have grass in the house). And he also kept “no monsters” signs outside his house to ask the monsters to go elsewhere

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Then, he started writing story books which he kept in Minecraft.

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Hugh’s engagement and enthusiasm has a large impact on Zenn. Zenn also asked to play, and so they have to negotiate to share the computer. At first, they figured that one could control the keyboard, while another control the mouse. I told them it would be difficult to create anything that way. Then, they figured they should take turns to play.

While Hugh has been more spontaneous in his play (well, he is five!), Zenn is older and can develop longer term plans about what he intends to create in Minecraft. Every Christmas, we will put together a small Christmas village under the Christmas tree. And I asked Zenn whether he like to build his own cottage. He bought the idea, and went ahead with creating an entire village with several houses and his favorite Pokemon! I 3D printed it for Zenn to paint.

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Every kid is different. Zenn is still the social, empathetic, and arty kid. But because Hugh is around, he started playing with computers a little more than he would. When we visited a local bookstore, Zenn spotted and asked to buy a book on Red Stone! While he does not understand electric circuit, he has been reading about things Red Stone could do. This shows how important it is for kids to get immersed in a social environment that says and does positive things about computers. It energizes computer learning, makes it fun, and develops self-initiative so important to self-teaching.

 

A “Geeky” New Year!

This Chinese New Year, among many routines, we did some geeky activities at home with Zenn and Hugh: we explored 3D printing, Pokemon TCG, and a Dash and Dot design contest! Zenn was especially happy to geek out in Pokemon.

3D Printed “Pikahugh”

Back in December 2016, when we had the chance, we signed up the boys, now six and four, for tech camps. Zenn went for an engineering camp learning concepts like drift and aerodynamics, and also picked up 3D printing. He did not actually do the printing, but used 123D Design to design the case of his own “F1” remote racer. He did not say much about the camp afterwards (Zenn is actually more performance arts inclined). But he has a strong interest in learning about Pokemons. So I gave him the challenge to design a new Pokemon for his beloved brother Hugh, called “Pikahugh.” If Hugh is happy with the design, I will buy him a Pokemon deck.

You never know what sort of motivation may drive a kid. But to use 3D modeling on our own computer, Zenn spent a lot of time with me learning how to start a PC, switch from my account to his account, enter his self-chosen password (and actually remembering it!), start Chrome, and surf to TinkerCAD. I was impressed with his patience! Once we started TinkerCAD, he could used some of his familiarity with 123D Design to figure out the functions, and painstakingly using the shapes to put together Pikahugh. Hugh gave comments now and then while Zenn did the adjustments. For example, the exaggerated head size was Hugh’s major feedback. I helped make minor adjustments to align parts of the model.

Finally, I took the STL file and printed a simple 3D model at my university. Yours truly had zero knowledge of 3D printing at that time. So I took some time one late afternoon to figure out the Makerbot at my school with the help of my students Aegis and Andy (thanks a bunch)!

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Once the model was finished, I did the sanding just to touch up Pikahugh a little (Zenn dislikes sanding since it is monotonous and takes a long time). We asked Hugh what color is Pikahugh, and he chose yellow and black ears. And Zenn worked earnestly in between our rather packed new year visits to get Pikahugh done (I already bought Pikachu and Lugia decks by now so he was not painting to get the decks). As he watched me writing this blog, he told me his favorite part of the process was to spray paint the primer. We learned many things like yellow is a primary color and we could not mix our existing paints to get yellow. Photo below showing Pikahugh painting in progress and upon completion.

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Pokemon TCG

Do not look down on kids’ interests!

We really need to remember that every interest can blossom into a hobby, an expertise, a profession, and even an industry. The same goes to Pokemon, which already has a huge market on its own. I saw how Zenn played the Pokemon TCG with his classmates, and they pretty much drew a card randomly and compare who had a card with the highest HP. I wanted to teach Zenn the real and challenging way of playing Pokemon TCG (and I actually learned the game rules from scratch too  >.< ). I introduced both boys to card sleeves as part of TCG practice. Before this, Zenn’s school mates were destroying card faster than they were buying them!

When we got home, both Zenn and Hugh eagerly help inserting every card into the sleeves. I did not expect Hugh to help, but he volunteered himself!

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When we finally completed the Chinese New Year visitations, we finally got a chance to sit down the try out our first Pokemon TCG battle while following the rules on the Internet. Dad won the first battle narrowly with my Pikachu deck! We actually got many rules wrong, so we got to try again next time.

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Dash and Dot Contest

Hugh was a little too young to comprehend most board game or TCG rules, or operating the PC on his own. So he was mostly an observer in the Pokemon and 3D printing activities. But one thing he really loves was Dash and Dot by Wonders Workshop, which we had for more than one year. Hugh practiced Dash and Dot again at the tech camp. (He is also crazy over The Foos, which he could play forever.)

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Hugh playing Dash, again!

And I saw the design challenge organized by Wonder Workshop. I wasn’t sure if Hugh was keen. One time while we are in the car, I casually asked if both boys were interested designing new toys for Dash and Dot; we didn’t talk long before we were distracted. But at night, before bedtime, Hugh voluntarily went to pick up the templates printed by Mom and started to draw his ideas! Zenn followed Hugh soon after. We did realize the design challenge does not allow non US residents to participate; but the boys agree we should still participate, and even without the prizes, hopefully we could get some feedback.

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Hugh and Zenn brainstorming their concepts

20170128_210231 20170128_210132Hugh and Zenn drawing and coloring their ideas on paper

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Their schematics!

Afterthoughts

Bringing up geeky kids means engaging with them – learning with them – challenging and intellectual activities. We can make use of their natural motivation to explore technologies and fantasies — to learn the wonders of how artifacts are designed, made, and come together through collaboration and peer feedback. When left alone, kids may not play 3D printing, robotics, or TCG the ways that make them challenging and rewarding. So it was a wonderful Geeky New Year to be able to accomplish so many things!

 

 

Ranking Practices and Distinction in League of Legends

When we play esports games, there is always a sense of presence of other players with whom we relate through competition. In this tightly written CHI Play paper, Yubo, Xinning, and I discussed an important design element, player ranking, which mediates this competitive climate, fostering its practices, rhetorics, and even to the extent of its social structure.

I am proud to be part of this paper that connects to my own research on StarCraft.

Robots and other Favorite Things

Recently, a volunteer, Wen Kai, who built a registration site for a Chan retreat organization helped me navigate the new and somewhat “unconventional” website. I was so grateful at the end, but Wen Kai humbly said he is “only an IT” (he meditated for more than ten years). “Only an IT” is something I heard often–that represents underappreciated status of geeky people in our lives. The husband who gets unappreciative call whenever the router broke? The programmer who has always been a contract staff because his manager believes all he does is a “simple matter of programming?” The computer nerd whose parents thought he should go and make “real” friends? The Pokemon players whose friend thought they ought to sit down instead of walking about! We need to appreciate geeky people and respect technologies a lot more! And this is a value I will pass to my children.

Since I blogged about my adventure of introducing robots to my kids (http://kowym.com/?p=542), so many things happened–we got board games, Hexbugs, and table-top adventure games! I always thought Zenn, 6, would receive these interests better, but Hugh never ceased to surprise us as the emerging geek in the house!

Hexbug! Hexbugs are a joy to watch, even for adults and cats! The basic Hexbugs are non-programmable robot insects which move according to preset logic. They avoid obstacles and navigate around mazes and tracks players set up. And oh they make you watch a long time. Even though Hugh loves watching Hexbug, there is no programming options for the robots except (I think) for more complex models. Perhaps this is why while Hexbug has the “wow” factor, the factor wears off, and Hugh has been asking for Dash and Dot a little more. Hexbugs are always visible in their play area though, and Hugh asked for the re-configurable habitat which dad hasn’t quite get to.

Board games. Seriously, which geek had never played board games? I first suggested board games  to my wife Lee Peng may be a year ago. We started with “Busy, Busy Airport,” “Cat in the Hat, I can do that!,” and “Busy Town, Eye Found It.” All were hits! We played these may once a few weeks. And both boys liked “Busy Town, Eye Found It” best. And the game requires simple counting which helps their maths development. Until mom found a “platinum” hit, “Sum Swamp”! It is a board game requiring players to move by doing simple dice operation–plus or minus 1 to 12. It remains difficult for Hugh (who counts much in the same way as the gully dwarf Bupu. Well, sorry geeky me, nevermind 🙂 ), but Hugh just keeps trying!

Table top adventure game. If you know what this is, you got to be an old geek. And I, the ancient sorcerer have been introducing Dungeons and Dragons to students of my general computer game class in which many expressed dismay at its complexity. I love these table top adventures, rather than the hack and slash computer versions kids nowadays tend to play; because there is so much flexibility and skills involved in mastering these games. For example, our boys went to speech and drama classes, and we love these classes which encouraged the children to pretend play, and also explaining to others, role-playing at the same time, how they would behave in various kinds of situations. Table top adventure has this element, and in fact, role-playing is a central part of D&D. Apart from that, D&D makes use of dice mechanics to determine outcome (maths), game rules to determine permissible actions (logic), and story telling to explain situations in a vivid way (language).

The two boys are too young for full-fledged dungeoneering (their dad would love that). So I started with a simplified game world known as Hero Kids. If Zenn has not yet fancied the board games and robots, he has been asking for “adventure games” nearly everyday since! And Hugh loves it just as much. (Go my little heroes!) This rekindled my passion in D&D so much I recently picked up my dusty Dragonlance books, and picked up other nearly discarded “tomes” and figurines from my fellow hero Kah Yong. For now, when the next opportunity arise, I got two more adventures waiting for them. 🙂

Dash and Dot (update). Dash and Dot doesn’t have the initial wow factor, but its programmability may yet extend its shelf live as kids age and develop more complex thinking. First, it is probably the most expensive among the arsenal of geeky things I contemplated buying. But alas, and after the initial fun (as I have blogged before), I was afraid it was going to collect dust on my TV console. Hugh was two when I bought it on Christmas 2013, and Zenn did not explicitly ask for it but only once a long while. However, recently, Hugh, now 4, rekindled his interests and actively asked to “play robot” from mom almost weekly. What is interesting is Hugh has been focusing on making the robot do things through the Wonder app, and Path app. Wonder provides a series of gamified programming tasks, and he can simply drag and drop lines indicating the sequence of how the program will be activated (or going into loops). The robot can sing, dance, and do silly moves. Path is more direct at this–and Hugh would trace a path which the robot will move and perform. I love seeing how Hugh get exciting in “teaching robot do things.” He has difficulties solving any tasks that contain loops or more than 3 functions. But at his age, its the fun and empowerment to doing that counts.

So far, we did all these geeky things at home by ourselves. We have not yet found any commercial classes, or school activities they could participate in with other kids. But no fear, geeky parents! With these artifacts galore, I think it is wonderful time for kids to grow up with technologies.

“Hey, I know what this is!”: Cultural Affinities and Early-Stage Appropriation of the Emerging Bitcoin Technology

I am pleased to announce that my paper with Xianghua Ding has been accepted by GROUP’16!

In this paper, we investigated the cultural affinities as sociocultural factors that bring early-stage technology appropriators closer to the sites of the innovation, and mediate their journey of negotiating meanings with the innovation.

The sociocultural influences of technological trajectories is under-explored in HCI, despite it having relevance with many mainstream research areas, chiefly technology appropriation, adoption studies, and online communities. We chose technology appropriation as our main theoretical frame, due to appropriation exhibiting a greater emphasis on user participation and creativity (thanks for the many constructive criticisms by diverse reviewers on early versions of this paper); but we tried our best to engage the other frames as well without overcomplicating the theoretical arguments.

I hope the paper helps shed lights on relations between user cultural-histories and technological innovations.

An “epilogue” to Mediating the Undercurrents: Using Social Media to Sustain a Social Movement

Paper writing is largely thoughts seeking an audience. In the process, some thoughts are translated into words and languages, while others are reviewed, and rejected or revised. We are deeply honored to receive a Honorary Mention for the above paper, that discusses “undercurrents—the backstage practices consisting of meaning-making processes, narratives, and situated work” within the Umbrella Movement that took place in Hong Kong. But in the process of massaging the paper into a form relatable to the HCI audience, some of the original texts on the background of the movement were lost. I would like to use this opportunity to include this information–of possible interest to those conducting similar studies in and around Hong Kong.

Before 1997, Hong Kong had been a British colony for more than 150 years, until its reversion to the People’s Republic of China. While the Umbrella Movement had appeared short-lived in the media, the event was best seen as one symptom of social contradictions embedded in this post-colonial society.

In many ways, Hong Kong has exhibited features of a postcolonial society, due to daily life being deeply shaped by British rule, and its status as a global city. As Erni (2001) remarked, “writing about Hong Kong involves a triangular articulation of Chinese nationalism, British colonialism, and globalism, which also evokes the impossibility of serving three masters.” It was under this pretext of renationalization that Hong Kong was given a unique status as a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). In many ways, this current protest in Hong Kong is its people’s ongoing search for ways of coming to terms with and identifying the administration that they want for the future of Hong Kong under its legitimate parent—China.

And further exemplifying the resourcefulness of the students organizing on-the-ground activities was how the scale of the Umbrella Movement was accidental and unexpected.

The gathering would have been another peaceful but uneventful congregation, if not for an incident that raised public sympathy for the protesters to unanticipated heights. Suddenly and without many protesters’ knowing, smoke canisters were thrown into the crowd. One landed a meter from Waikuen, as a participant shouted: “tear gas!” The canister exploded, causing a frenzy in the crowd trying to flee the scene. As protesters choked and gasped, they ran over cameras and hurried over barriers . Waikuen and many others retreated to a nearby parking lot. At the parking lot, protesters were recovering from the shock; many were crying—visibly shaken but also enraged by the heavy-handed response from the police force.

Waikuen and many others began to check Facebook and WhatsApp for messages regarding what happened. While Facebook was inaccessible, perhaps due to high network traffic, student participants had circulated information on WhatsApp urging others to leave the scene—citing more police officers arriving through subway trains, and circulating rumors of harsher imminent measures to disperse the crowd.

In the above text, we attempted to provide some ethnographic details on emotions of participants on that fateful night.

In sum, these texts ought to be cut for a design-centric audience; but by including them in this post, I hope to inform those seeking more details about social movements in Hong Kong.

References

Erni, John Nguyet. Like a Postcolonial Culture: Hong Kong Re-imagined. Cultural Studies, 15, 3/4 (2001).

A Programmable Robot for Christmas Fun!

Something fun arrived in a package just in time for Christmas! Dash and Dot are two programmable robot toys, developed by Wonder Workshop (formerly Play-i), for kids 5 years and older to learn programming. I pre-ordered these in December 2013 and due to repeatedly delayed shipment, did not expect them to arrive in time for this Christmas. So it was a pleasant surprise as they arrive just in time in Singapore!

As Zenn and Hugh, my 4-year-old and 2-year-old, did not ask for this, I told them it was Papa’s toy. On the morning of Christmas day, we unwrapped our presents, and Zenn was insatiably curious what Papa had got in the big box from Santa. I wasn’t sure at first if they would be interested in Dash and Dot, but they quickly found ways to interact with them as soon as I hooked the toys up using some iPad’s apps.

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Dash, the robot seen in the following picture, has to be synced with an iPad over bluetooth to be told (i.e., programmed) what to do. The basic app that even Hugh can use if the Go app. The Go app provides touch screen control of Dash to move in any directions, moves its head up/down, left/right, and also its LEDs lightings. While Zenn is old enough to formulate imaginative scenarios, Hugh’s controls are more random but to him is equally fun. Here, they are taking turns to control Dash and see what he can do.

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I taught the boys how to make Dash “talk” (i.e., saying “hi” or making sounds like “meow”). Zenn quickly learned that it could interact with his favorite Red Panda. All except the robot was reacting somewhat incoherently tp the panda’s presence as Hugh was controlling it randomly.

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Another app that is within Zenn’s capacity to use is Path. Path allows the kids to plot a line from Dash’s position to anywhere on a grid. The kids can also insert way points at which Dash will perform actions (e.g., vibrate or make a sound). This way, Dash can be commanded to move from one point to another through many different ways.

Wonder Workshop also provides a Blockly app, which is in effect Scratch but customized for the two robots. Using Blockly is mostly beyond Zenn. At his age, Zenn can certainly understand a sequence of actions, while loops may be a little too complex for him. But using Blockly also requires reading and Zenn is still picking up on this skill. I mostly use Blockly to create interactions that the boys have found fun. For example, Dash can be made to respond to human voice, such as to reply “hi” and look/walk towards the direction of that voice.

Zenn and Hugh are certainly taking an interest in these robots. Yesterday, Hugh was asking to play with it. These gadgets are certainly not replacements for their favorite activities (e.g., drawing, play doh, scooting, and cars), and is more effective if an adult can join as their play partner. But I am glad the robots are finding acceptance as part of their arsenals of imaginative play things–and quite modifiable ones at that!

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update:

Amazingly, both of them (but Hugh particularly) still ask to play with the Dash. They have figured out the Dash’s basic movements, and love recording their own voices so that Dash would ‘say’ things. More recently, we started building lego on Dash using the connectors.

A book by Jaron Lanier on “Who Owns Our Future”

Every ten years or so, we will witness a new technology that impacts our lives. There was electricity, computer, digital media, Internet, and social media (we are still living this). But at times, these innovations also create unexpected consequences to our society. Previously, I had written about problems faced by peer producers creating and sharing software for free.  And I also wrote about how a better division of wealth between corporate IP owners and free sharing content creators could result in a more sustainable production eco-system. I have no idea how this balance could be achieved among monolithic organization; but Lanier, in this book, discussed some fruits for thought.

In a nutshell, Lanier argued that (as many researchers in media studies and games already did) that social media are really informative and enjoyable due in part to free giving content creators. But companies are currently appropriating these user created content for their own profits–due in part to the ways copyright laws are historically formulated. What we need is a system in which “nanopayments” could be paid to content contributors, so as a achieve a fairer division of wealth within, an effectively, a new production eco-system. (I admit that I am missing key points where Lanier discussed wealth as being increasingly centralized by a few companies at the detriment of the middle class. And that nanopayments can help enrich the middle class. I felt that these are more speculative and may be something to be left to the backburner.)

While Lanier did not discuss how nanopayment systems could be designed, I felt that the degree which the problems Lanier mentioned are real and urgent is a strong justification for some slacks in his proposal. This is afterall a starting point for stakeholders (us) to consider if the way we are dividing wealth among Internet participants is flawed, and if so, what should we do about it?  Overall, a very thought provoking read.

DML Research Hub Working Paper Series: “Crafting the Metagame: Connected Learning in the Starcraft II Community”

I am excited to announce the publication of our report that was long in the making. I have been working on StarCraft II research with Timothy Young since late 2011 to examine the players’ learning ethos and practices, and paid most attention to their experiences at home, in school, and in the community. In this working paper series, I also have the honor of working with Katie Salen Tekinbaş from the Institute of Play, who had obtained unprecedented access to interviewing Blizzard Entertainment designers and developers to understand their design perspectives. By analyzing both the players’ and developers’ perspectives, we described how these different kinds of localities–home, school, community, and work place–are playing complementary roles in cultivating technical skills, social ethics, learning attitudes, and social networks that are invaluable to these high achieving young geeks in their future careers.

 You can find the paper at: http://dmlhub.net/publications/crafting-metagame-connected-learning-starcraft-ii-community